Advanced biosensors for monitoring astronauts’ health during long-duration space missions
Aldo Roda ; Mara Mirasoli ; Massimo Guardigli ; et al. ; - ASI Sponsor
Jul - 2018
DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.03.062

journal : Biosensors and Bioelectronics

Volume : 111 ; Issue : 15 July 2018
type: Article Journal

Abstract
Long-duration space missions pose important health concerns for astronauts, especially regarding the adverse effects of microgravity and exposure to high-energy cosmic rays. The long-term maintenance of crew health and performance mainly relies on prevention, early diagnoses, condition management, and medical interventions in situ. In-flight biosensor diagnostic devices and medical procedures must use few resources and operate in a microgravity environment, which complicates the collection and management of biological samples. Moreover, the biosensors must be certified for in-flight operation according to strict design and safety regulations.Herein, we report on the state of the art and recent advances in biosensing diagnostic instrumentation for monitoring astronauts’ health during long-duration space missions, including portable and wearable biosensors. We discuss perspectives on new-format biosensors in autonomous space clinics. We also describe our own work in developing biosensing devices for non-invasively diagnosing space-related diseases, and how they are used in long-duration missions. Finally, we discuss the benefits of space exploration for Earth-based medicine.

keywords : Space medicinePoint-of-care testingBiosensorsSpaceflightInternational Space StationDiagnostics