Microgravity-driven remodeling of the proteome reveals insights into molecular mechanisms and signal networks involved in response to the space flight environment
Giuseppina Rea ; Francesco Cristofaro ; Giuseppe Pani ; et al. ; - ASI Sponsor
Mar - 2016
DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.11.005

journal : Journal of Proteomics

Volume : 137 ; type: Article Journal

Space is a hostile environment characterized by high vacuum, extreme temperatures, meteoroids, space debris, ionospheric plasma, microgravity and space radiation, which all represent risks for human health. A deep understanding of the biological consequences of exposure to the space environment is required to design efficient countermeasures to minimize their negative impact on human health. Recently, proteomic approaches have received a significant amount of attention in the effort to further study microgravity-induced physiological changes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the effects of microgravity on microorganisms (in particular Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, Bacillus cereus and Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H), plants (whole plants, organs, and cell cultures), mammalian cells (endothelial cells, bone cells, chondrocytes, muscle cells, thyroid cancer cells, immune system cells) and animals (invertebrates, vertebrates and mammals). Herein, we describe their proteome's response to microgravity, focusing on proteomic discoveries and their future potential applications in space research.Biological significanceSpace experiments and operational flight experience have identified detrimental effects on human health and performance because of exposure to weightlessness, even when currently available countermeasures are implemented. Many experimental tools and methods have been developed to study microgravity induced physiological changes. Recently, genomic and proteomic approaches have received a significant amount of attention.This review summarizes the recent research studies of the proteome response to microgravity inmicroorganisms, plants, mammalians cells and animals. Current proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of all proteomes. Understanding gene and/or protein expression is the key to unlocking the mechanisms behind microgravity-induced problems and to finding effective countermeasures to spaceflight-induced alterations but also for the study of diseases on earth. Future perspectives are also highlighted.

keywords : Microgravity (μg); Space flight; Proteomic approaches; Adaptive and defense responses

Notes : Research funded by Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (I/021/12/0)