Effects of bed-rest on urea and creatinine: correlation with changes in fat-free mass
Bilancio, Giancarlo ; Lombardi, Cinzia ; Pisot, Rado ; - ASI Sponsor et al.
Jan - 2014
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108805
ISSN : 1932-6203 ;
journal : PloS one

Volume : 9 ; Issue : 9
type: Article Journal

BACKGROUND: Bed-rest experiments are designed for investigation on catabolic effects of hypokinetic conditions and/or for microgravity simulation in on-ground aerospace research. Bed-rest effects include a reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass. Urea and creatinine are catabolites of endogenous protein and of muscular energetic metabolism which are excreted mainly by the kidney. The study investigated on urea, creatinine, and kidney function during bed-rest. METHODS: Twenty healthy young men underwent a 7-day adaptation period (day-6 to day-0) and a 35-day bed-rest experiment (day1 to day35) during normocaloric diet. Urine were collected from day-3 to day0 (baseline) and from day1 to day35. Blood samples and anthropometrical data were collected at day0 (baseline) and bed-rest days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. RESULTS: Bed-rest reduced plasma volume, weight, fat-free mass, and muscle mass (P<0.001). During bed-rest there was a transient increase in plasma and urinary urea, a decrease in plasma creatinine, and no change in urinary creatinine. The overall integral of changes from day0 to day35 was on average +101.7 mg/dL for plasma urea (95\%CI = +43.4/+159.9), +82.2 g/24 h for urinary urea (95\%CI = +55.8/+108.7), -2.5 mg/dL for plasma creatinine (95\%CI = -3.1/-1.9). Bed-rest reduced plasma cistatyn C also, which was used as mass-independent marker of glomerular filtration rate (-13.1\%, P<0.05). Correlations with final reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass were significant for the overall integral of changes in urinary urea from day0 to day35 (R = 0.706, P<0.001) and for early changes in urinary urea and plasma urea from day0 to day7 (R = 0.566, P = 0.009 and R = 0.715, P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Study results shows that urea is a marker of catabolic conditions secondary to hypokinetic conditions.

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